There are a number of different types of sensors which can be used as essential components in different designs for machine olfaction systems. Electronic Nose (or eNose) sensors fall into five categories, conductivity sensors, piezoelectric sensors, Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), optical sensors, and these employing spectrometry-based sensing methods.
Conductivity sensors may be made from metal oxide and polymer elements, both of which exhibit a change in resistance when in contact with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). In this report only Metal Oxide Semi-conductor (MOS), Weight Sensor and Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is going to be examined, because they are well researched, documented and established as vital element for various types of machine olfaction devices. The applying, where proposed device will likely be trained onto analyse, will greatly influence the choice of sensor.
A torque sensor, torque transducer or torque meter is really a device for measuring and recording the torque on the rotating system, including an engine, crankshaft, gearbox, transmission, rotor, a bicycle crank or cap torque tester. Static torque is fairly simple to measure. Dynamic torque, on the contrary, is difficult to measure, since it generally requires transfer of some effect (electric, hydraulic or magnetic) through the shaft being measured to your static system.
One way to achieve this is to condition the shaft or a member connected to the shaft with a series of permanent magnetic domains. The magnetic characteristics of those domains can vary based on the applied torque, and therefore could be measured using non-contact sensors. Such magnetoelastic torque sensors are typically used for in-vehicle applications on racecars, automobiles, aircraft, and hovercraft.
Commonly, torque sensors or torque transducers use strain gauges put on a rotating shaft or axle. With this method, a means to power the strain gauge bridge is necessary, as well as a means to have the signal from your rotating shaft. This could be accomplished using slip rings, wireless telemetry, or rotary transformers. Newer kinds of torque transducers add conditioning electronics and an A/D converter towards the rotating shaft. Stator electronics then browse the digital signals and convert those signals to Compression Load Cell, including /-10VDC.
A more recent development is the use of SAW devices linked to the shaft and remotely interrogated. The strain on these tiny devices as the shaft flexes may be read remotely and output without the need for attached electronics on the shaft. The probable first use in volume will be in the automotive field as, of May 2009, Schott announced it features a SAW sensor package viable for in vehicle uses.
An additional way to measure torque is through twist angle measurement or phase shift measurement, whereby the angle of twist caused by applied torque is measured by using two angular position sensors and measuring the phase angle between them. This procedure is utilized inside the Allison T56 turboprop engine.
Finally, (as described in the abstract for people Patent 5257535), if the mechanical system involves the right angle gearbox, then this axial reaction force experienced by the inputting shaft/pinion could be associated with the torque felt by the output shaft(s). The axial input stress must first be calibrated up against the output torque. The input stress can be simply measured via strain gauge measurement of the input pinion bearing housing. The output torque is definitely measured using a static torque meter.
The torque sensor can function just like a mechanical fuse and is also a vital component to obtain accurate measurements. However, improper installing of the torque sensor can harm the device permanently, costing time and money. Hence, cdtgnt torque sensor must be properly installed to ensure better performance and longevity.
The performance and longevity from the torque sensor as well as its reading accuracy will be afflicted with the appearance of the Tension Compression Load Cell. The shaft becomes unstable on the critical speed of the driveline to result in torsional vibration, which can harm the torque sensor. It is actually necessary to direct the strain with an exact point for accurate torque measurement. This aspect is typically the weakest point of the sensor structure. Hence, the torque sensor is purposely designed to be among the weaker aspects of the driveline.